Sultan Abdul Hamid II was the 34th Ottoman Sultan who ruled from 1876 to 1909. He is known as the last powerful and influential sultan who tried to preserve and modernize the Ottoman Empire in the face of internal and external challenges. He was also a devout Muslim who defended the Islamic world against European imperialism and Zionism.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II inherited a troubled empire that was on the verge of collapse due to debt, corruption, rebellions, and foreign interventions. He faced several crises during his reign, such as the Russo-Turkish War, the Berlin Congress, the Balkan Wars, the Armenian Question, and the Young Turk Revolution. He tried to cope with these problems by implementing political, economic, military, and cultural reforms. He also sought to strengthen the Islamic identity and solidarity of the empire by promoting pan-Islamism and supporting Muslim causes around the world.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II was a controversial figure who was admired by some and despised by others. He was praised for his efforts to preserve the Ottoman Empire and protect Islam, but he was also criticized for his autocratic rule and suppression of dissent. He was deposed by the Young Turks in 1909 and spent his last years in exile. He died in 1918 and was buried in Istanbul.
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